In order to understand fabric production, you need to understand the fundamentals of textile fabric and GSM is one such specification. GSM stands for Gram per square meter which is the weight of fabric in gram per one square meter. This way, we can easily compare fabric in unit area which is heavier and lighter at the same time.
Some Important Facts
There are two ways that you can use to know the weight of a fabric. One is the weight per unit area and the other is weight per unit length. When you measure fabric by unit area, you consider the metre unit but in case of unit length, you have to take the length of whole fabric into consideration. Moreover, you can measure fabric width. In the woven fabric terms, the weight per unit length is usually referred to as weight per running yard. Therefore, it is imperative to find out the agreed standard width on which the weight is based.
Before the word GSM came into existence, there was another term called lb/100 yards which was first coined by the British standard. The width is totally dependant upon the width of the loom. In order to measure this, you need to be aware of two terms which are a template and a quadrant. Moreover, you need to balance these two terms. The template area is 1/100 square yards of which each arm is 1/10 yards in length. When you need to measure GSM, a GSM cutter is there which is used to cut fabric and then the weight is taken in balance. These measurements and methods can be used for both woven and knitted fabrics.
Working Procedure for Measuring GSM of a Fabric:
- With the help of a GSM cutter, a fabric sample is cut.
- After that, weight is measured by using an electric balance.
- By doing this, we get the weight in gram per square meter fabric.
- When you multiply the sample weight with 100, you obtain GSM of fabric by using GSM cutter.